Serological Testing for Gluten Sensitivity (Non-Celiac Gluten Intolerance)

Volta U, Tovoli F, Cicola R, Parisi C, Fabbri A, Piscaglia M, Fiorini E, Caio G.

Department of Clinical Medicine, St-Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Aims: To characterize the set of serological tests in the screening of gluten sensitivity (GS) and to establish a comparison with what is known of these tests in the screening of celiac disease (CD).

Background: Gluten sensitivity has been identified as a new entity included in the spectrum of gluten-related disorders, but there are few markers for diagnosing this condition. 

Study: Blood samples from 78 patients with SG and 80 patients with CD were tested for anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) IgA (immunoglobulin type A) and IgG (immunoglobulin type G), respectively, d deamidated peptide IgG (DGD-AGA), anti-transglutaminase IgA (tTGA) and anti-andomysium IgA (EmA) antibodies.

Results: The anti-gliadin IgG antibody test was positive in 56.4% of patients with SG and positive in 81.2% of patients with CD with high levels in both groups. The anti-gliadin IgA antibody test was positive in 7.7% of patients with SG and positive in 75% of patients with CD showing lower activity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients with SG compared to to patients with CD. Only 1 of 78 patients with SG had a positive IgG deamidated peptide antibody test, while 88.7% of patients with CD were positive. Anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium antibody tests were negative in all patients with SG, while they were respectively 98.7% and 95% positive in patients with CD.

Conclusions: The serological portrait of SG is characterized by a positive anti-gliadin IgG antibody test in slightly more than half of the patients and a positive anti-gliadin IgA antibody test in only a few whereas it There is no positivity for anti-transglutaminase, anti-andomysium and IgG deamidated peptide antibody tests which are specific markers for CD.

Source: PubMed , a service of the American National Library of Medicine.